Molar mass: 146.14 g mol?1
Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. Its side chain is an amide formed by replacing the side-chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group. It can therefore be considered the amide of glutamic acid. Its codons are CAA and CAG. Recent studies have proven its effectiveness in anabolic muscle growth from prolonged consumption.
Glutamine has a variety of biochemical functions including:
A substrate for DNA synthesis
Major role in protein synthesis
Primary source of fuel for enterocytes (cells lining the inside of the small intestine)
Precursor for rapidly dividing immune cells, thus aiding in immune function
Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium
Alternative source of fuel for the brain and helps to block cortisol-induced protein catabolism
As a form of fixed nitrogen by heterocysts, exchanged for photosynthate from undifferentiated cyanobacterial cells?
As a carrier of ammonia from extrahepatic tissues.
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